Why You Should Get Blockchain Certified (Even if You’re Not a Developer)

lockchain is one of the highest in-demand, candidate-short industries. But the demand doesn’t just apply to developers (who are paid very handsomely). We’re seeing demand for industry knowledge across the board: receptionists, shipping clerks, security guards, stock brokers, and marketers.

A mining company is seeking a public relations manager who understands how recording gold sales on the transparent and audible digital ledger will reduce theft, fraud and murder in conflict mining regions. An investment firm is hiring sales managers who can explain how customer trading gains will be deposited in their digital wallets in real time and available for immediate withdrawal at an ATM.

Bank clerks, travel agents, and shipping clerks will directly transact and track loans, hotel bookings and large cargo shipments with clients and suppliers in secure ecosystems using proprietary tokens to access the secure network. It’s happening now.

If blockchain is the fourth industrial revolution — if smart contracts are going to eat the world — job seekers need to be prepared. A worker would not have survived the first industrial revolution without machine tool skills or the information revolution without computer skills. Those who learn faster (and are self-aware enough to know how they learn) will have a leg up.

The Blockchain Salary Premium

The shortage of blockchain engineers will soon spread across all disciplines — marketing, finance, logistics, and more. On indeed.com, over 500 blockchain developer positions in the United States, 200 in the United Kingdom, and 90 in Singapore need to be filled. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg.

Our organizational structures, functions and even governance structures are changing. Non-tech workers should understand basic blockchain functions such as the role of smart contracts in executing business functions, cryptography in providing security, and mining in transaction processing. If you are a marketer, aim to understand token economics and how incentives and rewards work in DApps.

“Understand the tech under the hood,” says Aaron Gallant, program director of Lambda School, which has trained tens of thousands of programmers. “What are we actually talking about when moving crypto from a to b?” The innovative training school is seeing high demand for its graduates that know how to work on smart contracts. Lambda’s fee structure enables it to accelerate training in high demand skills and the school provides free training upfront. Students who obtain a job paying $50,000 or more then pay a portion of their salary towards the tuition fee.

Even a basic blockchain certification course can boost your pay. Software engineering salaries are boosted 20 percent for understanding how crypto works, says Gallant. Blockchain engineers are the highest paid software engineers, making on average between $150,000 and $175,000 annually, according to Hired. The average software engineer without Blockchain training, meanwhile, makes $137k. Those who continue to climb the education ladder to the position of Blockchain research scientist are being offered $270,000.

Perhaps the faster road to getting that purple lambo isn’t throwing money around with wild speculation, but hard-work, dedication and a good education. There’s a thought.

Blockchain Courses for the Non-techie

Coinbase recently reported that universities around the world have seen a dramatic increase in the number of blockchain and crypto-related courses available. This is good news, and students around the world will be ready to fill the talent gap. But what about the rest of us?

The good news is that online courses make it easy to become “blockchain certified,” while setting flexible study times that fit into your busy schedule. And since Blockchain platforms share in the revenue, you may even make money while training and job searching. Not a bad deal.

B21Block.com is gamifying education on the blockchain and cryptocurrency. When you take one of its six learning blocks, comprising close to 1,000 lectures, you are eligible to receive monthly coin airdrops. You’re getting paid to learn.

A good place to start is the B21Block prep course for blockchain certification. By becoming a Certified Bitcoin Professional, you can show potential employers that you have blockchain smarts. Other courses offered cover blockchain and Ethereum developer skills, cryptocurrency investing and trading, and blockchain game development. B21Block.com was founded by bitcoin education pioneer Ravinder Deol, who has become a popular blogger educating “non-technical newbies” on cryptocurrencies.

Get Started

To learn more about how you can use blockchain skills and knowledge in your career, you can join blockchain career groups on LinkedIn. Hub.Careers has a popular blockchain subgroup. Search Blockchain job boards such as theCryptoJobsList or Coinmonks which has a blockchain-focused job board.

Before you land an interview, attend a blockchain seminar or conference — or two. Read Blockchain news to keep up to date. Tell them something they don’t know. Send them a list of 10 ideas to improve their business. Once you’ve got a little bit of experience under your belt, jump in. As one crypto founder said, “the potential that blockchain has on our lives is huge and luckily, it’s still day one.”

Aim to find projects that inspire you and work on them as a volunteer — contribute to their github repo, make suggestions, write blogs and be a constant learner. Projects really appreciate community feedback so if you are supportive, proactive and constructive, projects will start asking you to play a larger role.

And lastly, be ready for a rollercoaster lifestyle.

Attribution – This article was originally published on our Coinmonks publication by Misha


A free guide for non-coders to learn blockchain tech in 6 months or less

This article was written by the Competitive Intelligence & Data Studio team at G2 Performance Agency

So you want to learn about blockchain?

The best time to start would have been 9 years ago. The second best time is right now.

It’s not too late to be part of the movement.

source — how it felt for those buying crypto in 2018

We all wish we had gotten involved earlier and don’t want to feel like we missed the opportunity.

Many people just end up buying cryptocurrencies, but those folks haven’t done too well this year.

Maybe it’s not worth risking your own money this late in the game, unless you happen to be an expert.

The good news is that you can still get started without making risky investments… all you need to do is teach yourself the underlying technology. That’s the first step to getting hired in the blockchain industry. It’s a blazing hot job market paying steep premiums for those with a basic understanding of blockchain tech.

It’s going to take hard work, but it’s easier than you might think.

So, let me repeat what I said earlier: anyone can find a job in the blockchain industry, even if they can’t code.

The problem is that most of the articles and lessons out there are WAY too complex for a regular Joe/Jane. They assume you’re a computer science major or seriously experienced coder…

But, you know what…blockchain matters for everyone else, too.

I wrote this article to save you from wasting money on paid classes about cryptocurrency and blockchain. There are tons of free resources that are better than the paid alternatives. This article has everything you need to become a blockchain professional, for free. You can easily cover the material in 6 months and know MORE than enough to get hired.


Already know exactly what you’re looking for? Skip to the “resources” section.


Why Learn About Blockchain?

Just in case you need some motivation to get started.

Believe it or not, blockchain technology is still early in the adoption curve. Starting to learn today is like starting to learn web development in the late 90s. You could realistically be employable in just a few months, or an expert in the field within a few years.

“If theres a gold rush, don’t be the one mining for gold, be the one selling pickaxes and shovels.” The right opportunity isn’t always the obvious one.

So why should you pick this opportunity and start learning now?

  • Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin/Ethereum/etc. are risky. Their prices are unstable. It’s not easy to predict where they’re headed. But, hiring for blockchain technologies by top companies is stable and consistently growing. There are way more jobs than qualified workers.
  • It’s a smoking hot job market. These jobs aren’t just for coders, either. Copywriters, marketers, project managers, sales reps…. just about every department or position you can think of is desperate for workers with a basic working knowledge of blockchain tech.
  • The pay is really good. Seriously…did I mention these jobs pay really well? On average 20–30% more than their non-blockchain equivalents. I often see jobs paying a >50% premium for those with any blockchain experience.

So, what will you be learning?

You’ll learn enough about blockchain technology to get hired in a non-technical role. But, what does that mean?

It DOESN’T mean you need to be able to code your own blockchain, or understand the advanced math behind cryptography.

It DOES mean you’ll learn to communicate clearly about the various technologies that use blockchain. You’ll understand why blockchains matter. You’ll be able to describe the limitations and the basic mechanics. And, you’ll understand the big blockchain buzzwords.

When it comes down to it, it’s more like learning a language than a science.

So, if you’re convinced, here’s what you need to get started.

Top resources — a quick summary of the best blockchain classes, articles and books I’ve found.

You don’t need to know how to code to get started, I promise.

  • My #1 Pick: The Blockchain at Berkeley classIf you only do one thing to learn about blockchain, take this free online class. The lectures are on YouTube and the coursework is on the Berkeley website. Do the assigned readings before watching the lectures. You can re-watch the lectures as many times as necessary. I intentionally watch them one time all the way through. Then I re-watch and pause every time I hit a confusing portion. This class alone is enough to get you ready for many non-technical jobs.
  • Digital Gold by Nathaniel Popper(paid, but worth it)is the best book about the start of Bitcoin and the history of blockchain. I guarantee it will get you pumped about working in the industry. https://amzn.to/2Ixr8Bt If you don’t want to pay for it, do a free trial of Audible on Amazon to get the audiobook for free.
  • Beyond the Blockchain NY Times article and the Wired Guide to Blockchainare my picks for the best articles to get you up to speed as a non-technical reader. If the wired article feels too tech jargon-y for you, then try these bitdegree articles, they start simple and do a great job explaining each new term.
  • Next time your watching youtube, try watching a few blockchain and bitcoin intro videos. A good strategy is to watch several of these (a least 5 of them). Each will give you a slightly different perspective. You’ll pick up on repeated themes and the most common blockchain buzzwords. Here are 5 with different levels of detail: Understand the blockchain in 2 minutes(2:00), How does a blockchain work(5:59), Bitcoin: How Cryptocurrencies Work(9:25), Andreas Antonopoulos Intro to Bitcoin(37:16), Blockchain at Berkeley Introduction(48:29)
  • Blockchain for Dummies is a surprisingly good book from IBM that first explains blockchain and then helps you figure out if it’s a good match for your business. It gives you all the highlights for understanding how a business thinks about using blockchain technology. If you’re thinking of sales/marketing in the industry this will get you up to speed on how enterprise-level customers think.
  • Crypto Zombiesis the best option if you want to try out some coding. I know I said this is for non-coders… but if you’re thinking of trying it out, this is a good way to see if you like it. It’s not for everyone, but it’ll give you the quickest and easiest intro.

Josh’s full list of free blockchain resources

This is all the “good stuff” I could find for non-coders.

The best strategy for tackling this material — start by choosing a class from the list. Then prep for it by reading at least one of the books, watching all the videos I’ve listed, and reading all the articles. Complete the class with your newfound blockchain know-how. Once you’re done, choose your favorite blockchain project, read the whitepaper (which you can now fully understand) and start interacting with others in the project’s community. This will get you ahead of 99% of other job applicants.

Classes

  • Blockchain at Berkeley ClassI’ve said it before, but I think this is the best free class available. Lectures are hereand the class curriculum is here. The class is in-depth and gradually ramps up to more technical material. Take it slow, re-watch the lectures if you run into problems, and do the assigned readings.
  • Khan Academy Bitcoin Class Khan Academy does a great job explaining topics in a clear and understandable way. This class focuses on functionality more than the overall industry or history. You can take the class at any pace and ask questions along the way. It’s great for those struggling with technical concepts. You can take this alongside any of the classes listed here to help you through the technical portions.
  • Udemy: Introduction to Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain In my opinion, this is the best free course on udemy. I don’t generally take classes here, but for those that like udemy, this is the class I’d suggest.
  • Princeton Bitcoin Course(more technical) Try this if you want something WAY more challenging. The website has the textbook and all lectures along with course material. It’s geared towards those with a technical background and some basic computer science knowledge.

Books

  • Digital Gold by Nathaniel Popper (paid, but free option available) This book tells the story of bitcoin/blockchain in an understandable and exciting way. It will definitely get you fired up to learn more! https://amzn.to/2Ixr8Bt If you don’t want to pay for it, do a free trial of Audible on Amazon and you can get the audiobook for free.
  • The Age of Cryptocurrency (paid, but free option available) Written for a non-technical audience, this book is written to get you excited about the future of blockchain technology. https://amzn.to/2KWncLg Same as before, you can do a free trial of Audible on Amazon to get the audiobook for free.
  • Mastering Bitcoin by Andreas Antonopoulos. A technical book with a non-technical introduction. You only need the non-technical portion, so you can just use the free trial on the O’Reilly website and read it leisurely over a week. Also, I’ve noticed there’s an early release version of this book available online for free, just google the book’s title to find it.
  • The Princeton Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency Technologies book. This gets technical quick, but it is free and the first few sections are understandable by non-technical folks. Download it now. Once you start learning more about blockchain, you can reference this textbook when you want to learn more about a topic.
  • Blockchain for Dummies from IBM. This gives an easily understandable intro to blockchain. It also gives you an enterprise-level perspective on how a business decides whether or not to use blockchain technology. If you’re interested in working with larger companies or work in sales/marketing, I’d suggest reading this.
  • Want to learn more? Check out this curated list of free books. This git repo contains a solid collections of free ebooks for those that want more information. It seems to be updated semi-regularly and has some decent non-technical content.

Articles

  • Beyond the Blockchain New York Times — an excellent long-form article on the technology behind Bitcoin and how it goes far beyond cryptocurrency.
  • Wired Guide to Blockchain — for those with a bit of a tech background. Wired does a great job summing up the past, present and future of the technology.
  • Ten years in, nobody has come up with a use for blockchain — If you want to get into the industry, you should understand the biggest critics. Kai Stinchcombe’s critique on slow adoption of blockchain tech has gotten the most attention.
  • WTF is blockchain? — one of my favorite articles explaining the technology in 4000 words or less.
  • Bitdegree articles— these are my favorite tutorial-style articles. They cover most of the basic blockchain topics. The articles are written for absolute beginners, but go into a fair amount of depth.
  • Why everyone missed the most mind-blowing feature of cryptocurrency— this is a very hot topic in the tech world right now. It covers the way cryptocurrency offers a path to universal basic income. Whether you support the idea or not, the idea is trending and it’s good to understand.

Videos

That’s it. Everything you need to be well on your way to understanding blockchain technology.

Attribution – This article was originally published on our Coinmonks publication by Josh Cottrell-Schloemer.

How to kickstart your blockchain career

When a new type of industry emerges, we find it perhaps not creating a job market, but an opportunity market, primarily serving thepeople who can help themselves to pieces of a rapidly growing pie.

In this article I will outline some key opportunity areas of blockchain, and how you can become a contributing force within each of them. For people who are coming from a 9–to–5 job mentality — be ready to put in a lot of work and unpaid effort. Focus on long term goals instead of short term rewards.

The opportunity areas I will be highlighting are:

  • Software development
  • User experience
  • Product management
  • Entrepreneurship

Software development

Before you start looking for career opportunities, remember that certain prerequisites are needed to enter the blockchain industry as a software developer. You should for instance have a good understanding of how blockchains work, and how smart contracts are coded in languages such as Solidity. A solid grasp of distributed systems and peer-to-peer networking is an additional plus.

As for finding actual work, there’s dedicated job websites — and a global LinkedIn “blockchain” jobs search yields over 7600 results. That is of course the traditional method of breaking your way into a new industry.

Working for ICO’s

Another, perhaps more cunning way, would be to go to ICOBench and list all completed ico’s. Collect the contact emails to the projects you find interesting. Then prepare an introductory email presenting what value you can create in terms of software development, and send it over along with your CV. Don’t forget to include a link to your GitHub account.

An even more proactive way of finding your first job is to go to the GitHub page of your favourite blockchain project and find issues labeled “help wanted” or “good first issue”. There’s a service called Github-help-wantedwhich does just that. Add “solidity” as a language, or “blockchain” as the label and voila, now it’s just a matter of solving issues and proving yourself.

Blockchain jobs in traditional tech companies

The interest for blockchain has exploded recently, but its’ accompanying job market hasn’t. Traditional companies tend to adopt groundbreaking technology at a slower pace than startups, so finding blockchain jobs in larger corporations is a bit more difficult.

But if Jay-Z and “embracing the grind” has taught us one thing, it’s that you can hustle your way into practically anything, even a blockchain job at a traditional company.

There are multiple ways to go about this, but I’d start out by mapping out the industries where blockchain technology makes the most sense. Some of these are the insurance industrybanking and supply chain management.

Granted the largest players within each industry probably have their own blockchain innovation centers by now, so I’d focus on setting up meetings with the smaller companies to introduce your skill-set and how blockchain can act as a cost saver or technology enabler for them. If you are persistent and savvy enough (don’t forget to dress like success!), opportunity will eventually present itself either as consultancy work or even employment.

User experience

Kickstarting a career in design is easier than in software development, since a lot of existing knowledge can be “ported over”. Blockchain technology still relies heavily on traditional design processes; such as wireframing, A/B testing and good old visual design chops.

Image result for ux blockchain
Make sure you have blockchain related work to showcase

You should be able to showcase your work on Dribbble of course, and understand the pro’s and cons of blockchain technology. Also take some time to design a simple blockchain related piece of work, such as a product landing page or a cryptocurrency wallet concept. Here’s some inspiration to get you started.

Other than being experienced in design, concepts such as wallets, transactions and scalability should also be something you are familiar with. When you have that ready, head over to BlocktribeBlockchainjobz or Cryptocurrencyjobs and start applying for jobs – and don’t forget to include a link to your design portfolio!

Product management

Product management jobs are perhaps the most challenging to find. This is since blockchain businesses primarily are startups with a single product, already managed by the CEO of the company.

Indeed has a slowly growing list of relevant product management jobs — but there’s also a strong case to be made for starting your own business.

Managing your own product

You’re reading this article since you are passionate about blockchain technology. So ask yourself the question — how often do you have the opportunity to actually create something from the ground up — in a brand new industry?

Blemonade, the first fully transparent and trustless lemonade

If you have a background in product management, then you probably have the experience of managing people who build products. So why not build your own?

Find someone who shares your passion about blockchain and who complements your skill-set. The killer kombo is often a product manager teamed up with a software developer, mainly because that’s what is needed to create a minimum viable product, which in turn can raise your first investment round.

If you’re still hesitant about the whole entrepreneurship lifestyle, read the next section to understand more about what starting a company in blockchain might actually look like.

Entrepreneurship

Blockchain is an opportunity market — much more than a job market. This will scare off people who realise that it’s much easier to apply for a job, than to create one for yourself. But I think there’s still many valid arguments for starting a blockchain-based business.

Everything in neon makes more sense

Starting a business for the blockchain community

Your product will need to address the problems and needs of the blockchain community, either on the business or the consumer side. You could for instance enter the following fields:

  • Usability for decentralized apps
  • Tooling for smart contract developers
  • Software-as-a-service solutions for blockchain technology

Many people might still be at a loss for ideas, but try to think of it in the words of Paul Graham;

The way to get startup ideas is not to try to think of startup ideas. It’s to look for problems, preferably problems you have yourself.

The quote summarises quite well how to find your blockchain idea. Just make sure you’re not a hammer looking for a nail. Focus on building something for blockchain technology, not on blockchain technology.

Starting a blockchain based business

Some people are attracted to the sheer ingenuity of blockchain technology and would like to use a distributed ledger for basically everything. This does limit your range of business ideas, so let’s take a step back and understand what properties blockchains can bring to the table.

Blockchain technology can, amongst other things;

As you can see there’s a lot of real world applications that make sense. Keep in mind that the hardest thing about entrepreneurship isn’t finding an idea, it’s getting used to the idea of creating your own opportunities.

Conclusion

I hope you’ve gained some insight on how to create your own path in blockchain, regardless of your background. This industry is still ripe with opportunity–but mainly for those who are incentivised more by passion than pay.

So put yourself out there; write an article, create a crypto podcast, code a project in your spare time or setup your own business. Anything that creates value for the blockchain community, will in the end create an opportunity for you.

Attribution – This article is Written by Nima Boustanian and originally published on our Coinmonks publication.

Getting a blockchain tech job — for non-coders

This article is written by the Comp Intel/Data Studio team at G2 Performance Agency

Before we start: a pre-requisite for this guide is that you have a basic knowledge of blockchain technology. If you don’t have that yet, start here with my list of free resources to learn about blockchain.


So, you want to work for a blockchain company?

Maybe you love crypto, or you believe in decentralization or even want to revolutionize the financial industry… whatever brought you here, I can tell you there’s one hell of a job market for blockchain tech.

There are WAY more positions available than can be filled. The industry is desperate for qualified candidates.

“It’s one of our biggest concerns. We can’t find qualified talent. Every time a new position opens up we struggle, and that has pushed up our starting salaries and hourly rates for freelancers”

These high paying jobs aren’t just for coders, either. Every position you can imagine is in demand: copywriters, community managers, sales execs, project managers, accounting, UI/UX… if you can think of it, there’s someone hiring.

Now, I can’t tell you how to get hired for every type of job. But, I CAN give you a framework that can improve your odds.

I’ll do my best to open the door, but you need to walk through it.

In summary, the steps are simple. It’s just a matter of sticking to it.

  1. Be realistic about how much you actually know about blockchain technology —most people drastically overestimate their knowledge
  2. Get focused. Pick a specific technology or project and learn the ins & outs.
  3. Get involved in the community. Talk to people that work on the project.
  4. Put the right skills on your LinkedIn. Make sure recruiters can find you
  5. Get yourself on BNTY & Upwork. Do freelance work. Build a portfolio.
  6. Volunteer. Work for free if you have to. Demonstrate your value.
  7. GET HIRED!

So, let’s get started.

There’s some prep work to do before you start applying for jobs.

Firstyou need to get realistic about how much you actually know about blockchain technology. Employers are getting flooded with resumés from unqualified candidates. 
What does that tell you? It tells you there are a lot of people out there that drastically overestimate their skills.

Completing this step puts you ahead of 50% of blockchain job applicants. Almost half of applicants can’t make it past a basic intro course about blockchain technologies.

Choose a project and do your due diligence

If you’re interested in a specific project or cryptocurrency you need to do your crypto-due-diligence™:

  • read the whitepaper
  • join the Telegram
  • join the subreddit
  • join the email list
  • read any major news articles.
  • If there’s a spec page or wiki available, read it, even if you don’t understand everything you read.

Make sure you understand the topics people are discussing in the community. You DON’T need to know how to code your own blockchain, but you DO need to understand how the core technology works and the value it brings to customers/users.

This understanding of the core technology gives you a leg up for any type of job. Even an accountant or graphic designer needs to understand the core technology they are working with.

This puts you ahead of 75% of applicants. Many applicants have little to no knowledge of the underlying technology and aren’t active in a project’s community .

Get yourself out there — build a profile

You’ve got to get out there. Hit the dance floor and show them your moves.

Start on Upwork. It has the most blockchain freelancing jobs for you to choose from. You need to build your portfolio and get some experience before applying to a full-time position.

  • Learn how to write a strong profile. I suggest this site for guidance, the free articles cover everything you need to know.
  • Learn how to send strong proposalsHere is some basic guidance.
  • Start broad. You’re looking for any blockchain related jobs that match your skill-set. Don’t worry about focusing on one technology yet. You’re just looking to start a portfolio with anything you can get.
  • Stay entirely focused on keeping your clients happy. You’re looking to get a few positive reviews. This will give you the credibility you need later on.
  • Always tell clients you’d like to work with them again and would appreciate any referrals. This could pay off later.

This is all easier said than done. Don’t get disheartened if it takes time. If you send out 20 proposals and can’t get a job then 1) seriously review your profile and proposals and get a second opinion to make sure you’re not making obvious mistakes and 2) move over to alpha.bounty0x.io and start completing jobs there. Keep track of your experience. Use them for your portfolio

When all else fails write some articles.

Struggling to build your portfolio? Can’t get any freelance gigs? Can’t find decent bounties?

Then it’s time to start writing. If you already have a blog, great. If not, start writing here on medium. It’s easy to get started.

  • Choose a blockchain topic you actually find interesting (this is important!). Readers can tell when you’re excited about a topic.
  • Write an informative piece on the topic you’ve chosen. You’re going for three things: be thorough, show your personality, and show off your talents.
  • Use formatting, add images, and if you go deep on a subject make sure to keep it entertaining. You’re goal is to keep the readers attention.

This is now a piece you can use as an example of your work. It’s an opportunity for you to tell a story about who you are and what you want to do.

Building a portfolio puts you ahead of 85% of applicants. Many applicants have little to no portfolio work that’s actually applicable to the job they apply to.

Start volunteering.

As soon as you have some work in your portfolio it’s time to get involved with your favorite project.

Communicate with folks that are involved in the project. Figure out where people working on the project are congregating. Sometimes they are on telegram, sometimes on reddit, sometimes on forums. Do your research and figure out where the most people hang out.

Let them know you’re interested in the project and would like to help. Show them you have experience. Offer to do some work for free. Ask for the best place to get involved.

If you can’t get anyone’s attention than try doing some work on your own and post it publicly — if you’re a writer then write an article, if you do social media then start up a social account, if you do marketing make some examples of marketing collateral. Show your value. Be so good they can’t ignore you.

This puts you ahead of 95% of applicants. Having actual volunteer work on a project shows real value and lets those hiring know that you’re someone they can work with.

Begin the job hunt

Get your LinkedIn up to date. This lets people know your available, and gives you a professional profile recruiters can find. Make sure to include all applicable blockchain skills. Mention blockchain in your profile and include a sample project with your work.

Now you’re ready. First things first, try asking for a job.

  • Reach out to a specific person in the department you want to work in. Don’t email a generic jobs@____.com address.
  • Tell them your interested, explain how you could add value, and ask them to keep you in mind if work becomes available.
  • Keep it moderately casual.

This works more often than you’d expect. My experience is that you are more likely to get a job this way than by sending in a standard resume to an HR department.


IMPORTANT: If that doesn’t work out, then figure where the company posts new jobs. You’re going to skip the standard resume/cover letter process and get straight to the people that matter.

  • Watch like a hawk for new positions opening up. Follow social media accounts, telegram, etc.
  • If you see a job posted that you’re interested in, wait to send in a formal application. First, do some googling to figure out who you’d be reporting to in the organization.
  • Contact that person directly. There are lots of tricks for finding business email addresses, but the easiest is to search there name plus the company’s web address in google. If that doesn’t work, just google “how to find someone’s business email” and try some of the other techniques.
  • Don’t mention the job posting when you email them, just tell them you’re interested in the work they’re doing and think you could add a lot of value to their team. This starts things off by setting you apart from the crowd.

If you’ve tried everything else and it hasn’t worked, then you can try sending in a standard job application/cover letter. If you go this route you need to do your research and understand what the employer is looking for. 90% of getting hired with a standard job application is understanding what EXACTLY the employer wants. Most people focus on themselves and their personal strengths… this couldn’t matter less. You need to focus on what they want, not what you like about yourself.

Hopefully, you now have a great job. If not, and you need some support, feel free to get in touch and I’ll be happy to offer some advice.

Attribution – This article is republished from our Coinmonks medium publication and written by Josh Cottrell-Schloemer .


How to get your first blockchain Job? Part – 1

Image by @fancycrave on Upsplash

Recently a member on our Coinmonks Jobs telegram group asked us, “How to get your first blockchain Job?” This was really an interesting question, So we thought to write about it. Today we will look in a more generalized way, In upcoming blogs, we will go deeper and look at different jobs sectors in blockchain industry more deeply.  

If you see as an industry blockchain is just another industry with blockchain and other decentralize technologies center to it. There are two types of blockchains around with industry is getting build.

  • Public blockchain 
  • private blockchain

Jobs around Public Blockchain technology 

When I say public blockchain, I mean Bitcoin, Ethereum, Cardano, Nem etc. Though there are more to decentralization, which we will discover in future blogs. 

Public blockchains are open and the industry dynamic around them are different than corporations using private blockchain. Public blockchain sector is currently far bigger than private blockchain sector.

  • Public blockchain projects are more ambitious and mission-driven for disrupting the current way of doing things.
  • Many start-ups are getting build on public blockchain compare to the private blockchain. 
  • Public blockchains have a big community around it and the community is a very important part to keep these blockchains alive.

Jobs on companies working in Public Blockchain space 

  • Public blockchain project and companies around it hire more freelance, remote workers currently.
  • There are multiple jobs like community management, bounty hunting, other financial and regulatory jobs (because of cryptocurrency aspect), which do not exist on private blockchain world. 

How to get your first Blockchain Job (Public Blockchain)?

There is a simple mantra, which you can apply for getting your foot in the blockchain industry.

  • Find a project
  • Start learning as much you can (Build something if you can)
  • Get involved in the community and contribute
  • Showcase your learning (By writing, creating videos or any way you can), help others and interact with potential employers.

Jobs around Private blockchain

When I say private blockchain, I mean Hyperleger, Corda, Quorum etc.

As private blockchains are used mostly by corporations and big companies, So private blockchains have different industry dynamics. Currently, private blockchain is not as big as public blockchains but It’s growing rapidly.

  • Public blockchain projects are more market-driven and trying to bring blockchain tech in the current market based on use cases (ex — Supply chain use case).
  • Currently, big companies, corporations and service providers and consultancy are mostly using and working on private blockchain technologies. 
  • Private blockchains communities are similar to other tech community, though communities can’t direct participants in private blockchain network. 

Jobs on companies working related to Public blockchain

  • As corporations mostly use private blockchain, so there are fewer chances to work remotely or on a freelance basis. Private blockchain industry jobs are more conventional in comparison to public blockchain industry. 

How to get your first blockchain Job (Private blockchains)?

As private blockchain market is conventional tech market, so there are mostly conventional jobs in all the sectors such as marketing, sales though as technology is different there are more opportunities for developers here. 

Getting a job in big coorperations works in a conventional way too. 

  • Build up your resume
  • Learn private blockchain technologies (also public blockchain tech), build something to showcase
  • Learn about use cases and how it can help current markets. 

Resources to Learn about Blockchain

You can read our previous blog about learning smart contract development and why you should learn it. Also, check out our blog about blockchain interview question for ethereum developer. 

We also run a blockchain/crypto education publication Coinmonks. Where we have curated thousands of educational stories, so you can check it and learn about different blockchain technologies and much more. 

Smart contract Developer Jobs

Blockchain development thriving in bear market

image source — shuttlestock

I think, till now everyone developer on the earth has heard about the blockchain. It’s the current buzzword. Though the Blockchain industry still needs a lot of talent to produce mainstream products. Today we’ll talk about smart contract development. In my view, a developer’s entry point to the blockchain industry is Smart contract development. That’s how I got in.

What is a smart contract?

Ok, So you understand the contract, correct? An agreement between two or more parties. The condition of the agreement has to be followed by all parties, But what if this thing is enforced by the code. Let’s take an example, Alice agrees to buy a car from Bob on this Christmas. There are below conditions.

  1.  Alice will pay upfront 3% of the total car value. 
  2. Alice has to pay bob remaining 97% before the Christmas day to get the ownership.
  3.  In case, Alice is not able to buy the car, Bob will keep that 3% upfront payment.
  4.  In case, Alice will pay full payment, Car ownership will be transferred to Alice. (Let’s assume car ownership can be acquired by a password)

In a normal world, Alice and Bob will be transacting through cash or online banking payments and agreement will have some intermediate party to enforce the rules of agreement. But in the blockchain world. This can be done automatically. We have a smart contract and let’s see how it works.

  1. Bob and Alice decide the car’s total worth and put in the smart contract.
  2.  Alice deposit 3% of the car’s total worth in the smart contract.
  3.  Bob stores the car’s password in the smart contract.
  4.  Now if Alice transfer the remaining 97% of the car’s total worth before Christmas, Smart contract will transfer the total amount to Bob and car’s password to Alice.
  5.  In case if Alice were unable to transfer the remaining 97% smart contract will transfer the 3% upfront payment to Bob and destroy the password.

So here a smart contract is working as an intermediary. Isn’t this cool? and this was a very simple example, we can do limitless things with the smart contracts. Think of a smart contract network talking to each other and settling things.

How to start with smart contract development?

You can choose any smart contract development platform but ethereum is one of good to start with. Though you need to learn Solidity, it’s not difficult. believe me. I am attaching a few articles which will help you get started with the ethereum smart contract.

Introduction to Solidity Programming and Smart Contracts (For Complete Beginners)

Top Solidity Tutorials

You can find more Solidity articles here. 

Why become a smart contract developer?

The blockchain is growing industry but we are nowhere near producing scalable systems right now. Though tools are getting developed and in future we will have scalable decentralize systems. Blockchain industry needs an army of developers to build tools on it. There is a lot of benefits to learning smart contract development.

1- Lack of good smart contract developers with the understanding of decentralize philosophy.
2- Remote jobs / Freelancing 
3- Developing your own project.

Smart contract Jobs Growth

A quick search on AngelList shows that more than 500+ companies hiring smart contract developers and more than 1500+ companies hiring in Blockchain overall. Other than that all the ICO’s you saw last year were developed using smart contracts. Thousands of Dapps are getting developed using smart contracts.

More than 200+ tokens are getting created every day on the ethereum network. 

How many smart contracts get created on ethereum every day? 

There are thousands of smart contracts are getting created on ethereum main net every day. 

source — bloxy.info

How many smart contracts get used monthly?

Last month more than 1.5 million smart contracts got used. Most of them are a general purpose smart contracts. In the bear market, smart contract development is growing.

Image source —bloxy.info 

We just talked about the ethereum network. There are other networks like EOS, Tezos and stellar on which you can build smart contracts too. 

Blockchain Job Interview Questions

Blockchain Jobs

Now Let’s deep dive into questions.

Attribution – This article is written by Chirag Maliwal. You can say hello to him here.

Q: What is the difference between Wei and Ether?
A: Wei is a denomination, like cents to Dollars or pennies to Pounds. 1 ETH = ¹⁰¹⁸ Wei

Q: What is the average block time in Ethereum?
A: ~14 seconds view more on https://etherscan.io/chart/blocktime

Q: What is the average block size in Ethereum?
A: Around 2KB, although it depends. Ethereum has a gas limit rather than a block size. The gas limit is a cap on both processing and storage/bandwidth because the cost of a transaction/function is fixed in units of gas for each type of instruction.

The gas limit is voted up or down by each miner and each miner determines what gas price it is willing to accept which is like bitcoin transaction fees but on a per gas basis rather than a per transaction basis.

To figure out how many transactions can fit in a block you don’t need to know what the price of gas is. You just need to know how much gas a transaction uses and divide the gas limit by that.

If the network receives a load of spam transactions that start filling up blocks then miners have 2 choices. They can vote up the gas limit to fit in more transactions or they can start increasing the gas price and reject transactions that pay too low a fee. Like with bitcoin a transaction with a low fee might still get through but it would have to wait until a miner that accepts a lower fee (lower gas price) is willing to let it in.

With a sustained spam attack, it would just get progressively more costly to do transactions until either the spammer runs out of money or the miners make so much money that they start expanding the network capacity

Q: How was the Premine of ETH?
A: 60 million were first created in a presale in 2014. Also, ethers are created when a block is mined.

Q: What is a node?
A: A node is essentially a computer, connected to the network, which processes transactions.

Q: How many Ethereum networks are you familiar with?
A: There are three types of network — Live Network (Main), Test Network (like Ropsten and Rinkeby) and Private Network.

Q: What are some ways to interact with a network?
A: You can either use a Wallet or a DApp

Q: Can you “hide” a transaction?
A: No. All transactions are visible to everyone.

Q: Where are transactions recorded?
A: In the public ledger.

Q: Why would you have a private network?
A: There are many reasons, but mainly because of data privacy, distributed database, permissions control and testing.

Q: How can you easily see details about transactions and blocks?
A: Using blockchain explorers like etherscan.io or live.ether.camp

Q: What about private network?
A: You can do it using open source explorer clients (like https://github.com/etherparty/explorer)

Q: What is consensus in blockchain?
A: The process of validating transactions (creating blocks) following a specific protocol (like Ethereum).

Q: How mining in Ethereum works ?
A: How mining works

Today, ethereum’s mining process is almost the same as bitcoin’s.

For each block of transactions, miners use computers to repeatedly and very quickly guess answers to a puzzle until one of them wins.

More specifically, the miners will run the block’s unique header metadata (including timestamp and software version) through a hash function (which will return a fixed-length, scrambled string of numbers and letters that looks random), only changing the ‘nonce value’, which impacts the resulting hash value.

If the miner finds a hash that matches the current target, the miner will be awarded ether and broadcast the block across the network for each node to validate and add to their own copy of the ledger. If miner B finds the hash, miner A will stop work on the current block and repeat the process for the next block.

It’s difficult for miners to cheat at this game. There’s no way to fake this work and come away with the correct puzzle answer. That’s why the puzzle-solving method is called ‘proof-of-work’.

On the other hand, it takes almost no time for others to verify that the hash value is correct, which is exactly what each node does.

Approximately every 12–15 seconds, a miner finds a block. If miners start to solve the puzzles more quickly or slowly than this, the algorithm automatically readjusts the difficulty of the problem so that miners spring back to roughly the 12-second solution time.

The miners randomly earn these ether, and their profitability depends on luck and the amount of computing power they devote to it.

The specific proof-of-work algorithm that ethereum uses is called ‘ethash’, designed to require more memory to make it harder to mine using expensive ASICs — specialized mining chips that are now the only profitable way of mining bitcoin.

In a sense, ethash might have succeeded in that purpose, since dedicated ASICs aren’t available to mine ethereum (at least not yet).

Furthermore, since ethereum aims to transition from proof-of-work mining to ‘proof of stake’ — which we discuss below — buying an ASIC might not be a smart option since it likely won’t prove useful for long.

Q: What are the two commonly used consensus models in blockchain?
A: Proof of work and proof of stake. . Proof-Of-Activity :

Q: Explain proof of stake in a simple way.
A: The creator of the block is chosen randomly by means of wealth and age (stake). It is not computationally intensive.

Q: What consensus model does Ethereum use?
A: As of the beginning of 2018 it uses Proof of work but it is going to switch to Proof of stake.

In Proof-Of-Activity, an alternative incentive structure introduced in bitcoins which is the hybrid structure that combines both Proof-Of-Work and Proof-Of-Stake. To avoid hyperinflation we have to stop the mining incentives because there are no more coins left in the system. Only limited number of coins are present in some system like bitcoins. In proof-of-activity, before all the coins used Proof-Of-Work in the picture and as soon as coins finish Proof-Of-Stake start working in which fees are divided between miner and validators who signed off the block.

Q: What is used to sign transactions?
A: User’s private key.

Q: Can you recover your Ethereum account after losing your private key?
A: Yes, you can use your 12 word mnemonic.

Q: What are some ways to connect to a node?
A: IPC-RPC, JSON-RPC and WS-RPC.

Q: So what is Geth?
A: Geth is an Ethereum cli client.

Q: What is the default way of connecting to a geth client?
A: IPC-RPC is enabled by default, every other RPC is disabled.

Q: What geth APIs are you aware of?
A: Admin, eth, web3, miner, net, personal, shh, debug and txpool.

Q: Which RPCs can you use to connect to a geth client over the network?
A: You can connet to a geth client over the network using JSON-RPC and WS-RPC. IPC-RPC can only connect to geth clients on the same machine.

Q: If you pass option — rpc which RPC gets enabled?
A: JSON-RPC.

Q: Which RPC APIs are enabled by default?
A: eth, web3 and net.

Q: How would you enable admin api for JSON RPC?
A: By using the option — rpcapi

Q: What does the option — datadir do?
A: It specifies where the blockchain will be stored.

Q: What is geth’s “fast” sync, and why is it faster?
A: Instead of processing the entire blockchain one link at a time and replay all transactions that ever happened, fast sync downloads transaction receipts along with the blocks and pulls an entire recent state database.

Q: What does — testnet do?
A: It connects the client to Ropsten network.

Q: Starting the geth client dumps a lot of output on the screen. How would you reduce the noise?
A: By setting — verbosity to a lower number (default is 3)

Q: How can you connect one geth client to another using IPC-RPC?
A: First start a geth client, copy its pipe location, then start another geth client using the same datadir and passing — attach with the pipe location.

Q: How would you load custom javascript files into your geth console?
A: By passing — preload and the path of the file.

Q: Where are geth client accounts stored?
A: In the keystore directory.

Q: What do you have to do with an account in order to make transactions?
A: You have to unlock that account with — unlock by passing the account address or index. You can also specify a — password file where all passwords reside for each account.

Q: You mentioned something about indexes. What determines the account index?
A: The order in which you add the accounts.

Q: Is it possible to mine using geth?
A: Yes, by passing — mine option.

Q: What is “etherbase”?
A: This is the account which receives the mining awards, which is account with index 0.

Smart Contracts and Solidity

Q: What is ABI ?
A:

“ABI” as an “API” at a low level.

The ABI, Application Binary Interface, is basically how you call functions in a contract and get data back.

An ABI determines such details as how functions are called and in which binary format information should be passed from one program component to the next…

An Ethereum smart contract is bytecode deployed on the Ethereum blockchain. There could be several functions in a contract. An ABI is necessary so that you can specify which function in the contract to invoke, as well as get a guarantee that the function will return data in the format you are expecting.

From Ethereum’s ABI specification, an example:

contract Foo {
  function bar(real[2] xy) {}
  function baz(uint32 x, bool y) returns (bool r) { r = x > 32 || y; }
  function sam(bytes name, bool z, uint[] data) {}
}

If we wanted to call baz with the parameters 69 and true, we would pass 68 bytes in total, which can be broken down into:

0xcdcd77c0: the Method ID. This is derived as the first 4 bytes of the Keccak-256 hash of the ASCII form of the signature baz(uint32,bool). 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000045: the first parameter, a uint32 value 69 padded to 32 bytes 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001: the second parameter — boolean true, padded to 32 bytes

The 68 bytes is what would be specified in the data field of a transaction: a security note on that is here. (To summarise, be careful what you put in the data field, because it can have unintended, possibly malicious side-effects when passing it to the calling contract.)

To avoid a common pitfall when deriving the Method ID, the canonical types must be used, for example uint256 instead of uint.

Here is an example in Solidity of computing a Method ID for sam above:

bytes4(sha3("sam(bytes,bool,uint256[])")

Using a higher-level library such as web3.js abstracts most of these details, but the ABI in JSON format still needs to be provided to web3.js.

Note: the ABI is an abstraction that is not part of the core Ethereum protocol. Anyone can define their own ABI for their contracts, and any callers of such contracts would have to comply with that ABI to get meaningful results. However, it is simpler for all developers to use Solidity, Serpent, and web3.js which all comply with the ABI above.

Q: So what is a Smart Contract?
A: It is computer code written in multiple languages. Smart contracts live on the network. They enforce rules and perform actions, negotiated by participants in those contracts.

Q: What languages can Smart Contracts be written in?
A: Solidity, which is the most commonly used language, Serpent and Lisp Like Language

Q: Example of a Smart Contract use case?
A: A popular Seller-Buyer scenario where a Buyer deposits money in the smart contracts, Seller sees the deposit and sends the goods, Buyer receives the goods and releases the payment.

Q: What is Metamask?
A: Metamask is a tool which helps you to easily interact with the Ethereum networks in your browser

Q: What node does Metamask use?
A: It uses infura.io

Q: What does Metamask NOT support?
A: Mining and contract deployment.

Q: Is execution of contracts free?
A: No, invoking contract methods is a transaction.

Q: Is accessing a Smart Contract state free?
A: Yes, querying state is not a transaction.

Q: Who executes the contracts?
A: Miners.

Q: Why does it cost money to invoke a method on a Smart Contract?
A: Some methods, which do not modify the state of the contract and have no logic other than returning a value, are free.
Apart from sending ether as a payment, invoking methods that make change the state cost money also because they require gas for execution.

Q: Why is there gas, more precisely?
A: Since miners execute contract code on their machines, they must cover their costs from executing the code requested by a caller.

Q: Does gas price determine when a transaction is processed?
A: Yes and no. The higher the gas price, the more likely your transaction will be mined. Despite, gas price is not a guarantee for faster transaction processing.

Q: What does the gas usage in a transaction depend on?
A: It depends on amount of storage, and type and number of instructions (opt codes). Each EVM opt code has a fixed amount of gas.

Q: And how is transaction fee calculated?
A: Gas used * gas price (specified by the caller)

Q: If an execution of a Smart Contract costs less than the specified gas, does the user get a refund?
A: Yes

Q: What happens if the execution of a Smart Contract costs more than the specified gas?
A: The user doesn’t get a refund and also the execution halts as soon as all the gas is used up and no changes are made to the contract.

Q: Who pays for Smart Contracts invocation?
A: The user who invokes the contract.

Q: What do nodes run Smart Contracts code on?
A: EVM — Ethereum Virtual Machine. EVM follows the EVM specification, which is part of the Ethereum protocol. EVM is simply a process on the node.

Q: What does the EVM need in order to run a Smart Contract?
A: It needs the contract’s bytecode which is generated from compiling a higher-level language such as Solidity.

Q: What are the segments of EVM on a higher level?
A: Memory area, Stacks and Execution engine.

Q: What is Remix?
A: An online tool for developing, testing and deloying contracts. It’s great for quickly building and testing lightweight contracts but not for more complex ones.

Q: In Remix, what nodes can you connect to?
A: You can connect to a public node using Metamask, local node using Geth and simulated memory node in the Javascript VM.

Q: What is a DApp and why is it different than a normal App?
A: An App usually consists of a client which communicates to some centralized resources (owned by an organization).
There is a mid-tier connecting to a centralized data tier. If information in the centralized data tier is lost, it cannot be recovered (easily).
DApp means Decentralized Application. DApps interact with the network via Smart Contracts. The data they work with resides in the contract instance.
Centralized data can be compromised more easily than decentralized.

Solidity

Q: Is Solidity statically or dynamically typed?
A: It is statically typed, which means that types are known at compilation.

Q: What is the equivalent to the Java “Class” in Solidity?
A: It’s the Contract.

Q: What is an instance of a contract?
A: An instance of a contract is the deployed contract on the blockchain.

Q: Give me a couple of differences between Java and Solidity.
A: Solidity supports multiple inheritance but doesn’t support overloading

Q: What is the very first thing you must specify in a Solidity file?
A: The version of Solidity compiler, which is specified as ^0.4.8. It is necessary because it prevents incompatibility errors which can be introduced when compiling with another version.

Q: What does a contract consist of?
A: It consists mainly of storage variables, functions and events.

Q: What types of functions are there?
A: There is a constructor, fallback function, constant functions and functions that modify the contract state.

Q: What error will I get if I put multiple contract definitions into a single Solidity file?
A: It is perfectly fine to put multiple contract definitions into a single Solidity file.

Q: What are some ways in which two contracts can interact?
A: A contract can invoke, create and inherit from another contract(s).

Q: What happens when you try to deploy a file with multiple contracts?
A: The compiler only deploys the last contract in that file and all other contracts are ignored.

Q: What if I have a huge project, do I need to keep all my related contracts into a single file?
A: You can use import statement to import a file,

import “./MyOtherContracts.sol”;

Q: Can I only import local files?
A: You can also import files using HTTP (even from Github),

import “http://github.com/<owner>/<repo>/<path to the file>”

Q: What parts is the memory of an EVM divided into?
A: It is divided into Storage, Memory and Calldata

Q: Explain Storage
A: Think of it as a database. Each contract manages its own Storage variables. It is a key-value datastore (256 bit key & value). The read and write are more costly in terms of gas used per execution.

Q: Explain Memory
A: It is a temporary storage. The data is lost once the execution terminates. You can allocate complex datatypes like arrays and structs.

Q: Explain Calldata
A: It can be thought of as the callstack. It is temporary, non-modifiable, and it stores EVM execution data.

Q: What variables are stored in the Storage and Memory areas respectively?
A: State variables and local variables (which are references to the state variables) are stored in Storage. Function arguments are located in Memory area.

Q: Take a look at the following code and explain which part of the code corresponds to which memory area:

A:
Part 1 — Storage.
Part 2 — Storage (array size points to the same location as counter)
Part 3 — Memory.
Part 4 — Reference to Storage.

Q: Can I do this:

function doSomething(uint[] storage args) internal returns(uint[] storage data) {…}

A: Yes, you can force the arguments of a function to be of type storage. In this case if you do not pass a storage reference, the compiler will complain.

What’s the difference between EVM and non-EVM calls?

  • EVM calls are smart contract method calls which trigger method execution and requires GAS.
  • non-EVM calls are reading values public values. No need to GAS.

How do you set a limit on the ether balance of a contract and what happens when you try to send more ether to the limited contract?

How can you set the value of msg.val in a contract acct and not an external acct? msg.val => msg.value = number of wei sent with the message

DApps and web3

Q: What is a DApp ?
A: Decentralized applications (dApps) are applications that run on a P2P network of computers rather than a single computer. dApps, have existed since the advent of P2P networks. They are a type of software program designed to exist on the Internet in a way that is not controlled by any single entity.

  • Decentralized applications don’t necessarily need to run on top of a blockchain network. BitTorrent, Popcorn Time, BitMessage, Tor, are all traditional dApps that run on a P2P network, but not on a Blockchain (which is a specific kind of P2P network).
  • As opposed to simple smart contracts, in the classic sense of Bitcoin, that sends money from A to B, dApps have an unlimited number of participants on all sides of the market.

Q: How DApps are different from Smart Contracts ?
A:
dApps are a ‘blockchain enabled’ website, where the Smart Contract is what allows it to connect to the blockchain. The easiest way to understand this is to understand how traditional websites operate.

  • The traditional web application uses HTML, CSS and Javascript to render a page. It will also need to grab details from a database utilizing an API. When you go onto Facebook, the page will call an API to grab your personal data and display them on the page. Traditional websites: Front End → API → Database
  • dApps are similar to a conventional web application. The front end uses the exact same technology to render the page. The one critical difference is that instead of an API connecting to a Database, you have a Smart Contract connecting to a blockchain. dApp enabled website: Front End → Smart Contract → Blockchain

As opposed to traditional, centralized applications, where the backend code is running on centralized servers, dApps have their backend code running on a decentralized P2P network. Decentralized applications consist of the whole package, from backend to frontend. The smart contract is only one part of the dApp:

  • Frontend (what you can see), and
  • Backend (the logic in the background).

A smart contract, on the other hand, consists only of the backend, and often only a small part of the whole dApp. That means if you want to create a decentralized application on a smart contract system, you have to combine several smart contracts and rely on 3rd party systems for the front-end.

Q: What does the front end use in order to connect to the backend (Smart Contracts)?
A: Web3 API libraries.

Q: Give some examples of DApps

A: Golem. The Golem project aims to create the first global market for idle computer power. Augur. Augur aims to combine the concept of prediction markets with the power of decentralised network to create a forecasting tool, for potential trading gains. Aragon Network aims to act as a digital jurisdiction that is extremely convenient for everyone to operate on.

Q: What do you need in order to interact with a contract from a DApp?
A: The contract’s ABI and bytecode.

Q: What is the ABI used for?
A: ABI is a description of the public interface of a contract, which is used by DApps for invoking the contract.

Q: What is the bytecode used for?
A: The EVM on each node requires bytecode in order to execute the contract code.

Q: Why would you use BigNumber library?
A: Because Javascript does not handle big numbers correctly.

Q: Why is it necessary to always check if the web3 provider is set in the beginning of your web DApp code?
A: Because Metamask injects it and overwrites the any other web3 with its own.

Q: Why would you use version web3 js 1.x instead of 0.2x.x?
A: Mainly because its async calls use promises instead of callbacks, which is preferred in the javascript world.

Q: How to list accounts in web3 1.x?
A: web3.eth.getAccounts

Q: What is the difference between .call and .send?
A: .send sends a transaction and costs moeny while .call queries the state of the contract.

Q: Is sending one ether like this “.send({ value: 1 })” okay?
A: No, you send 1 wei. Transactions always work with wei.

Q: So in order to send 1 ether I have to mutiply the value by ¹⁰¹⁸?
A: You can use the util method web3.utils.toWei(1, ‘ether’)

Q: What do I have to specify when calling “.send()”?
A: You must specify “from” which is the sender address. Everything else is optional.

Q: The only function of web3.eth.sendTransaction() is to send ethers to a specific address, is that correct?
A: No, you can also invoke contract methods.

Q: Do you know any solutions for scalability in Ethereum?
A: 2-layer protocols. Possible solutions are state channels and plasma.

“All the best”